Full Spectrum vs. Broad Spectrum Products: What You Need to Know

by July 27, 2021

Figuring out which CBD product or ingredients are best for your needs can often be confusing. We don’t always have time to research products and labels, especially when we’re leading a full and sometimes hectic life that probably involves balancing multiple responsibilities. This guide was created to help you understand the differences between full spectrum vs. broad spectrum products. 

Full Spectrum vs. Broad Spectrum CBD

The key difference between full spectrum and broad spectrum basically comes down to how many of the plant’s original cannabinoid and terpene compounds remain in the extract or product. If a CBD product contains many of the naturally occurring cannabis plant extracts, such as terpenes and other cannabinoids (including up to 0.3% THC), it is full spectrum. Whereas, broad spectrum will generally contain less of the original plant’s compounds, and non-detectable levels or no THC. 

Compounds in Full Spectrum CBD Extract

The cannabis plant has over 100 cannabinoids. These compounds may act synergistically to provide what some researchers have described as the “entourage effect,” which refers to the interaction of terpenes with cannabinoids. It is in essence a cascade of effects that can enhance potential therapeutic benefits, such as pain relief, improved sleep, improved mood and more. While CBD is generally the primary compound found in both broad and full spectrum, there are many additional compounds such as other cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. Each of these can have different effects on the body and brain. And with a wider variety of potentially impactful compounds, research has found that full spectrum extracts tend to be more effective than broad spectrum or individual isolates. 

CBD research indicates many potential therapeutic benefits with regards to these additional compounds: 

Full Spectrum CBD Benefits

In addition to promoting overall well-being and helping you feel like your best self, CBD products containing a more full range of cannabinoids and terpenes support a wide range of possible benefits, such as:

  • Reducing inflammation
  • Managing pain relief
  • Boosting energy
  • Improving focus
  • Providing better sleep
  • Acting as an antioxidant
  • Promoting cognitive wellness, including better memory retention
  • Decreasing stress
  • Improving mood
  • Reducing nausea
  • Aiding skin allergies and skin disorders

It’s important to know that these benefits are supported by only very early stage research. That said, it’s a promising time to be focusing on the possible benefits of these compounds as the research continues to develop, and more rapidly so. 

What CBD is Best for You?

Broad spectrum can be useful for people who want to ensure they don’t have exposure to THC. It contains many of the therapeutic compounds found in the full spectrum, just less, and with an absence of THC. The shorter spectrum and absence of THC can potentially mean that such products are going to be less effective from a therapeutic perspective. Anecdotal evidence attests to the idea that THC contributes to the positive effects of CBD, and conversely the benefits may be reduced when THC is not present. We should also keep in mind that when following the strict DEA guidelines for CBD products, the 0.3 percent THC in full spectrum CBD isn’t generally enough for people to experience psychoactive effects. The issue here of course is that many companies in the CBD marketplace are going to be less credible in this regard, which is why it’s so important to understand the company behind the products. 

Superiority of Gaard Labs Full Spectrum CBD

Gaard Labs has developed an advanced and proprietary methodology utilizing the latest scientific understandings around cannabinoids and terpenes in creating a range of CBD products supporting physical recovery and wellness. The team of doctors and scientists are focused on the power of purified botanical terpenes to drive CBD benefits to levels previously not seen in the industry. Their secret weapon is a focus and understanding of individual terpene isolates and how those isolates work together to support a broad range of cannabinoids. 

The advanced approach coupled with their commitment to New York State regulatory standards – probably the most strict in the United States – make for a product I’m comfortable recommending. I’m also happy to see that their latest products contain organic ingredients.

In summary, the quality attributes one should look for when comparing CBD products on the market are clearly part of the Gaard Labs offering. Shop now!

Sources:

U.S. Food & Drug Administration – FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)

Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings –Cannabidiol primer for healthcare professionals

The New York Times – What Are the Benefits of CBD?

Current Neuropharmacology –The ‘Entourage Effect’: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders

Journal of Cannabis Research –Reasons for cannabidiol use: a cross-sectional study of CBD users, focusing on self-perceived stress, anxiety, and sleep problems

ACS Omega –Chemical Profiling of Medical Cannabis Extracts

British Journal of Pharmacology –Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects

Medicinal Plants –Therapeutic and Medicinal Uses of Terpenes

ACS Omega –Flavonoids in Cannabis sativa: Biosynthesis, Bioactivities, and Biotechnology

Molecules –Quality Traits of ‘Cannabidiol Oils’: Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations

National Institutes of Health – Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Tampa Bay Newswire – Different Types of Extraction Methods Used for CBD Oil

Healthline – Can You Get High from CBD or CBD Oil?

IntechOpen: Recent Advances in Cannabinoid Research – The United Chemicals of Cannabis: Beneficial Effects of Cannabis Phytochemicals on the Brain and Cognition

National Institute on Drug Abuse – The Biology and Potential Therapeutic Effects of Cannabidiol

What Are Terpenes in CBD Products and Why Do They Matter?

by July 20, 2021

All plants contain a complex mix of phytochemicals. Among these compounds are terpenes, which give many plants, including hemp, their distinct smells. An increasingly interesting aspect of terpenes is the growing body of knowledge supporting their health benefits. Whether you’re new to the world of CBD or looking to expand your knowledge of how it interacts with your body, understanding what terpenes are, their benefits and why they’re important can help you choose the best CBD product for your wellness needs.

What Are Terpenes?

Terpenes are the organic compounds that are responsible for giving plants their specific aromas and flavors. As the primary constituents of essential oils naturally derived from botanical sources, terpenes are what make, say, a lemon smell like lemon, and lavender like lavender. Terpenes play a range of significant roles for plants — certain terpenes can protect plants by repelling grazers, pests and pathogens, while others help attract pollinators. 

Many plants, including Cannabis sativa (the plant that CBD and THC are derived from), can contain a various array of terpenes. Terpene profiles are generally what drive strain preferences amongst connoisseurs. These preferences may be due to the aroma or the effects. For example, an OG Kush will have a distinct earthy pine and sour lemon scent coupled with woody undertones. Terpenes found in this strain are the relaxing terpineol, the uplifting limonene, and the anti-inflammatory yet sedative myrcene. If you’re in need of a relaxing strain that will put you in a good mood, OG Kush can’t be beaten. In cannabis, the terpenes are primarily found in unfertilized female flowers. They’re synthesized inside the glandular trichomes — the sticky, hair-like growths on the plant that are often likened to little “factories” of important plant compounds — and increase in production depending on factors such as weather, light, or nutrition.

Common Types of Terpenes and Their Benefits

Nature has the ability to produce many thousands of different terpenes that create distinct aromatic profiles as well as promote health benefits when applied topically, ingested, or inhaled by humans. Similar to cannabinoid science, there is a long way to go with the research before we can make definitive conclusions. That said, there are some exciting possibilities around potential benefits. These benefits can include supporting rehabilitation and recovery, stress management, improved focus, better sleep and better energy levels.

Some of the most common terpenes and their benefits include:

    • Eucalyptol: found in the eucalyptus plant. Early research finds this terpene may help with many inflammatory related issues, the precursor or cause of illness.
    • Beta-caryophyllene: Also found in cloves, rosemary and hops. This terpene is especially interesting as it has been found to activate some of the same receptors activated by cannabinoids, potentially resulting in beneficial synergies. Early research has identified beta-caryophyllene as a potential analgesic and therefore may support pain reduction
    • Alpha and Beta Pinene: Also found in pine needles, rosemary and basil. Early research supports encouraging potential benefits around cognitive wellness, stress and inflammation.
    • D-Limonene: These are found in abundance in citrus plants, such as lemons, oranges and grapefruit and are often found in dietary supplements or as a fragrance in cosmetics. Advancing research suggests the possibility of multiple cognitive and anti-inflammatory benefits with this terpene. 
  • Humulene: Also found in hops and wood. Closely related to Beta-caryophyllene, this terpene has been known to promote sedative, anti-inflammatory and pain relieving effects. 
    • Myrcene: Oftentimes the most prominent terpene found in cannabis and often associated with “couch lock.” It is also found in mangos, lemongrass, thyme and hops. Early research has focused upon its potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The calming effects of this terpene can be quite noticeable. 
  • Linalool: Also found in lavender and birch bark. Noting strong anti-inflammatory effects in mice studies, this terpene has been found to have promising therapeutic benefits in cognitive wellness. When taken in CBD products, you may feel the effects of relaxation and calmness, or find it helpful with minor aches and pains.

The Relationship Between Terpenes and CBD

Terpenes and CBD (or cannabidiol) are both phytochemicals that the hemp plant produces in its trichomes. While both are non-intoxicating (i.e., they won’t get you high), terpenes and CBD have different effects on the human body — CBD, as a cannabinoid, interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) and stimulates specific ECS receptors located on organs throughout the body whereas terpenes can have similar, different or complementary interactions with the body and brain.

Studies have shown that terpenes and cannabinoids, like CBD, may have greater, synergistic benefits when you take them together — a cascading of beneficial effects that can be more powerful then when either is used individually. In fact, the presence of terpenes can even enhance cannabinoid activity, so taking a CBD product that is full spectrum (an extract that contains many of the beneficial compounds of the hemp plant, including up to 0.3% THC) have been found to be more effective than taking an isolate (where everything except for the CBD itself is stripped away). 

In one study conducted in 2018, a group of epilepsy patients were given either a CBD extract mixed with other cannabinoids and terpenes, or a pure CBD extract with no other compounds. It showed that 71 percent of the patients who took the mixed preparation experienced fewer seizures, while only 46 percent of the patients who took the pure CBD extract experienced relief.

Raphael Mechoulum, the first scientist to isolate THC from the cannabis plant in 1964, referred to the individual and combined actions of the cannabis plant compounds as a “pharmacological treasure trove.

Gaard Labs – Advancing Terpenes in CBD Products

In understanding the potential benefits and synergies of cannabinoids and terpenes, the analogy of keys and locks are oftentimes used. Each of the cannabinoids and terpenes is like a key that unlocks certain therapeutic benefits. With this, we can understand how more keys can result in more potential benefits. Gaard Labs has a 5-member medical and science team focused on unlocking these benefits.  

Formulating terpene rich products requires a deep understanding of cannabis, the latest science and advanced manufacturing techniques. It also requires a deep understanding of the supply chain to ensure product safety. Rooted in science, the Gaard Labs products will often contain anywhere from 5 – 20 terpenes. Its topicals boast up to 3,500MG of proprietary terpene blends next to 1000MG of cannabinoids. The oral sprays contain up to 300MG of terpenes. Their advanced formulations combining purified terpene isolates with organic, GMO-free full spectrum hemp extract, manufactured in GMP certified facilities, support safe and consistently effective products. 

Gaard Labs is on to something exciting in the CBD relief and wellness sector. It’s differentiated approach and backed by 100-plus combined years of expertise in the medical and cannabis fields is going to be exciting to watch as they continue to develop their product range. You can easily integrate their products into your recovery or wellness routine.

Sources:

MedicalJane – Terpenes

Cannabis Tech – What is a Trichome?

Plant Science – “Terpenes in Cannabis sativa – From plant genome to humans

Leafly – What are cannabis terpenes and what do they do?

Journal of Herbal Medicine – “Appropriate use of essential oils and their components in the management of upper respiratory tract symptoms in patients with COVID-19

Cancer Medicine – “β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide-natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties

Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases – “Alpha-pinene exerts neuroprotective effects via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

Journal of Food Biochemistry – “D-limonene: A multifunctional compound with potent therapeutic effects

Nutraceuticals – “Humulene

Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management – “Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain

Neuropharmacology – “Linalool reverses neuropathological and behavioral impairments in old triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice

International Journal of Molecular Sciences – “Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System

Current Neuropharmacology – “The ‘Entourage Effect’: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders

Frontiers in Neurology – “Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis

CBD User Guide: What Is CBD and How Do You Use It?

by July 14, 2021

CBD is everywhere right now, from the pages of glossy magazines to your local health store. Many people use CBD to enhance their overall health and wellness. But what exactly is CBD? And how do you use CBD products?

With so many products out there, you might feel overwhelmed. Here’s a beginner-friendly guide on how to use CBD.

What Is CBD?

Hemp and cannabis plants naturally contain hundreds of chemical compounds, known as cannabinoids. One of the most well-known cannabinoids is called cannabidiol — CBD, for short. Once extracted from the plant, CBD can be used to make products like topicals, gummies, oils and more. 

CBD doesn’t make you feel intoxicated, or, “high.” Another cannabinoid, called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is responsible for the high you’d feel after using cannabis. 

Recent research has suggested that CBD — as well as THC and other cannabinoids — may have numerous health benefits. But these cannabinoids  are not the only beneficial components of cannabis. Terpenes, which give different strains of cannabis their unique scents, also may have positive effects on the body. 

The Benefits of CBD

Part of the reason why cannabis is so popular is due to its versatility. Research on CBD suggests it has a wide range of potential health benefits. And while this research still has a long way to go, the available studies are quite promising. The following areas are of particular interest. 

CBD for Pain Relief

CBD is often used for pain. In particular, people use it to relieve muscle soreness, inflammation and recovery after exercise. CBD has been shown to have pain-relieving properties and many people swear by using CBD as a part of their workout routine or to relieve minor aches and pains. CBD topicals, including creams and balms, are often used for muscle soreness. 

CBD for Relaxation

CBD is often used for relaxation and many people find that it gives them a sense of calm and peace. Research has also suggested that CBD could reduce feelings of stress — which is great news, as we know stress can harm both your mental and physical health. So, if you need to add some zen to your daily routine, CBD might be an option for you.

CBD for Skin Issues

CBD can also be used for skin conditions. Many people swear by using CBD topicals to nourish skin and ease irritation. One study found that CBD-enriched ointment can help with skin conditions like psoriasis, allergic rashes and scarring. CBD could also help with acne by reducing inflammation and regulating the natural oils produced by your skin.

CBD for Sleep

Many people claim that CBD improves their sleep quality by using products like our Relief Nighttime Oral Spray. It’s no wonder, since both pain and stress can keep you from getting some shut-eye. You might enjoy using a little CBD before bed, whether it’s in the form of an oil, a gummy or a capsule.  

Types of CBD Products

There are dozens of different CBD products out there. Some of the most popular types include:

  • Tinctures, oils and sprays
  • Topicals (including roll-ons, creams, serums and balms)
  • Edibles
  • Beverages (including water, coffee and tea)
  • Powders
  • Capsules

Which CBD Product Should I Use?

That’s a long list — there’s an impressive number of choices available, presented by a plethora of different CBD brands out there. The type of CBD product you choose really depends on your personal preference. If you enjoy a few tasty sprays throughout the day, CBD Sprays might be ideal for you. If you’re trying to address a skin condition or localized pain, consider using a topical balm or cream. 

But no matter which CBD product you opt for, it’s important to purchase only high-quality products from reputable brands, like Gaard Labs.

How to Use CBD Products

Most CBD products are pretty simple to use. They often come with instructions or suggestions  for their intended use and contents.

Your ideal CBD dosage will depend on factors like your weight, metabolism and symptoms. When it comes to ingesting CBD (CBD Sprays, for example), it’s a good idea to start with a small amount of CBD and gradually increase the dosage until you notice a difference. For example, you might start with 15 mg – 20 mg and increase it slowly until you notice the effects. 

How To Use CBD Sprays

Work out how much CBD liquid you need to take to get to your desired dosage. . If you’re using an oral spray, spray the desired amount under your tongue. Hold the liquid there for 30 seconds and then swallow. This allows the CBD to pass into your capillaries, or tiny blood vessels, so that it can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream without going through your digestive system.  If you are using a dropper, be careful not to let it touch your mouth, as this can introduce bacteria into the bottle.  For this reason, as well as the ability to more accurately achieve proper dosing, oral sprays are often preferred by healthcare professionals.

How To Use CBD Topicals

CBD topicals, like CBD balm and roll-ons, can be applied directly to the affected area. Certain products are intended to be used for skin conditions, while others are used for pain. Wash the area before applying the topical and massage it into the skin. Reapply as necessary. Roll-Ons with lidocaine have the added benefit of instantaneous relief, often beneficial to combat more superficial immediate nuisances such as rashes or itchiness from bug bites.

Gaard Labs CBD

CBD is a great way to reach your health and wellness goals, whether that be pain relief, stress reduction or better sleep. Wondering where to start? Gaard Lab’s offers an array of CBD products designed for your needs. Shop now

 

Sources:

Practical Pain Management (PPM) – The Empowered Pain Patient’s Guide to CBD

Frontiers in Immunology. “Translational investigation of the therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a new age

Clinical Therapeutics – “A therapeutic effect of CBD-enriched ointment in inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous scars

Journal of Clinical Investigation – “Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes

5 Therapeutic Benefits of Terpenes in CBD for Optimal Health

by June 1, 2021

Terpenes are some of the most abundant compounds in plants and other living organisms. While many CBD or cannabis product users may be aware of the aromatic profiles that terpenes give to different hemp or cannabis strains, recent studies have begun to highlight the potential for numerous health benefits. In fact, research suggests that terpenes can actually enhance the effect of cannabinoids, in addition to providing their own effects supporting relief and recovery, a sense of calm or focus, a better night’s sleep or even an energy boost. 

Here, we’ll walk you through five benefits of terpenes, and some of the science behind them.

1. Soothes Inflammation and Pain

Some terpenes, such as eucalyptol, are widely effective at soothing inflammation. Found in the eucalyptus plant as well as tea tree, wormwood and sagebrush, eucalyptol has been shown to demonstrate powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in cell and animal models as well as in patients with chronic diseases. Other studies point to eucalyptol’s potential to relieve cold symptoms such as nasal congestion and headaches by decreasing mucus buildup and inflammation. Research also indicates that another terpene, humulene (which you can find in hops, sage, basil and other herbs), provides marked anti-inflammatory effects when taken by mouth or inhaled. You can find eucalyptol in our Relief Balm and humulene in both our Relief Nighttime Oral Spray and Calm Oral Spray. Healthcare professionals and wellness minded consumers are increasingly using terpene-rich CBD products.

2. Provides Relief From Itches, Rashes and Minor Aches

Terpenes can provide targeted relief that penetrates the skin and alleviates itches, rashes and minor aches. Our Relief Roll-On with Lidocaine can be applied directly to the skin throughout the day to soothe minor aches and pains or itching resulting from bug bites. It contains over a dozen terpenes, including alpha-pinene which has anti-inflammatory benefits, and d-limonene, which studies have shown reduces nitric oxide production (a signalling molecule in inflammatory pathways) and exhibits antioxidant activity that inhibits free radicals. The formulation also features beta-caryophyllene, found commonly in black pepper and cloves, which is a pungent terpene whose ability to bind to the CB2 receptor in your body’s endocannabinoid system has been studied for its calming, anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, it contains myrcene and has also been found to have anti inflammatory properties, making it a great addition to topical products

3. Calm Your Nerves

Terpenes such as limonene and pinene have been well studied for their calming effects. Found in oranges and citrus fruits, limonene is a potent agent in aromatherapy, and when ingested can help relax your nerves. In one study, rats that were given limonene experienced less anxiety during a high-stress maze sequence. Another study found that inhalation of limonene (from lemon oil) had anti-stress and antidepressant-like effects. Pinene, which is found in pine trees, Cannabis sativa and other plants, is also a potent calming terpene. A study on mice found that pinene, when inhaled over the course of several days, accumulated in several organs to keep its anti-stress properties constant during high-stress situations. Everyone can benefit from a calm and relaxed mood. Try the Gaard Labs Calm Oral Spray and benefit from this daily supplement.

4. Support Focus and Energy

Terpenes such as pinene and limonene can have a significant impact on your focus and mood. In one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, an essential oil blend containing pinene, limonene and other terpenes was given in the form of capsules to a group of healthy adults, and researchers found that the blend markedly improved their focus and mood. When combined with CBD, which can help with nervousness, stress and other mood-related problems, these terpenes can amplify CBD’s effects for even greater focus and mood-supporting benefits. If you’re feeling unproductive or lethargic, try the Gaard Labs Focus Oral Spray.

5. Help You Sleep Better

Struggling to fall and stay asleep is unfortunately a problem for many people. Luckily, the terpene linalool, which is found in some hemp strains as well as lavender, has been well-studied for its ability to help you relax and sleep. Researchers in 2014 noted that its sedative properties are related to its ability to decrease activity in your sympathetic nervous system and, conversely, increase activity in your parasympathetic nervous system (Your SNS is responsible for the fight-or-flight response, whereas your PNS seeks to maintain balance in the body and oversees its “rest and digest” function). Another study observed that even inhaling linalool could decrease motor activity. Other terpenes that can help you relax include myrcene, which is the active sedating component of hops and lemongrass. Both linalool and myrcene are the primary terpenes of our Relief Nighttime Oral Spray, which is perfect to take for soothing minor aches and pains before bed. Try the Gaard Labs Relief Nighttime Oral Spray to get a good night’s sleep.

Benefits of Gaard Labs Terpene-Rich Products – Keys and Locks

The Gaard Labs team brings a deep understanding of the cannabis plant to product development, creating safe, consistent and effective CBD products rooted in the latest science. Dr. Howard Rubin, Gaard Labs Chief Science Officer, was one of the first to grow, extract and manufacture medical cannabis products under state license in Nevada. Together with Dr. Jon Greenfield, he leads the five-person medical and scientific board.

In order to understand why Gaard Labs products are superior to others found on the market, it’s worthwhile to describe the “keys and locks” of cannabis products. Formulations can range from simple (i.e., less keys) to advanced (i.e., more keys). On the simplest level, CBD products are based on one key, a single CBD isolate. These products are easy to create and understand, given they are based on one primary molecule. Unfortunately, they tend to be less effective than products containing a more significant spectrum of compounds. Strain-specific formulations tend to have a broader cannabinoid and terpene profile, or more keys, native to the selected strain. These formulations tend to be more effective than single isolate-based formulations. However, their keys are smaller (lower concentrations) and more limited (less keys). That is to say that the presence of individual and aggregate terpenes in strain specific formulations are generally low. Plus, because the range and concentration of their compounds depend on nature, they tend to vary based on geography, weather and nutrition. 

Gaard Labs Terpene Rich CBD Products 

Gaard Labs starts with a premium full spectrum hemp extract (no more than 0.3% THC). But the real difference comes in when they add rich blends of purified terpene isolates. Each of their products gets a different blend to promote varying desired effects. The determination of which isolates get included into which blends is made based on a deep understanding of cannabis science, medicine and chemistry. 

On top of a 1000mg base of cannabinoid extract, their topical products contain up to 3500 mg of a wide variety of beneficial terpenes, whereas their oral sprays contain up to 300 mg of beneficial terpenes. Following our analogy above, the team at Gaard Labs uses more and bigger keys to unlock desired benefits. It is much easier said than done, which is why we don’t see this approach too often, yet. Their game-changing advanced formulation and manufacturing methodologies are clearly leading the CBD industry in safe and consistently effective consumer experiences with CBD product innovations.

To learn more, visit the Gaard Labs blog.

Sources:

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology – Eucalyptol and Its Role in Chronic Diseases

Healthline – 7 Impressive Benefits of Eucalyptus Leaves

The Derm Review – Bisabolol

HelloMD – Know Your Cannabis Terpenes: Camphene

Project CBD – CBD for Mood Disorders

Biomolecules – “Therapeutic Potential of α- and β-Pinene: A Miracle Gift of Nature

Physiology and Behavior – “β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice

Flavour and Fragrance Journal – “Linalool: a review on a key odorant molecule with valuable biological properties

Natural Product Communications – “Linalool – A Review of a Biologically Active Compound of Commercial Importance” 

Nutraceuticals – “Cannabis sativa: an overview

Harvard Health Publishing – Cannabidiol (CBD)-what we know and what we don’t

Scientific Reports – “Essential turmeric oils enhance anti-inflammatory efficacy of curcumin in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

British Journal of Pharmacology – “Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpene α-humulene in experimental airways allergic inflammation

Healthline – What Is Limonene? Everything You Need to Know

Iranian Journal of Microbiology – “Antiviral activity of monoterpenes beta-pinene and limonene against herpes simplex virus in vitro

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Journal – “Mechanism of antifungal activity of terpenoid phenols resembles calcium stress and inhibition of the TOR pathway

Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior – Anxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants

Behavioural Brain Research – Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice

Phytotherapy Research – Daily inhalation of α-pinene in mice: effects on behavior and organ accumulation

Terpene-rich CBD products – what a consumer needs to know

by May 16, 2021

Cannabis consumers are increasingly becoming more sophisticated and knowledgeable about hemp-based cannabis.  They learn about plant’s components and potential effects of phytochemicals known as phytocannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes.  This article addresses the importance of terpene profiles in hemp cannabis products and what a consumer should look for when considering the purchase of such products.

Terpenes were first analyzed in the early 1800’s and found to be present in all plants.  Botanists found that terpenes were a major constituent of the plant’s essential oils responsible for its unique aroma.  The early research also found that some terpenes were responsible for the plant’s protective mechanisms involving defense against predators, bacteria, and viruses, while other terpenes attracted bees for pollination.

People don’t realize how frequently we are exposed to terpenes.  When you walk through a pine forest and take a deep breath, that smell and the feeling it elicits comes from terpenes.  When you are chopping basil, the aroma is from the terpenes that are being released.  These scents initiate a cascade of responses such as increased saliva, appetite stimulation, a sense of relaxation, and a feeling of well-being.

The cannabis industry and medical community continue to study the impact that terpenes have on human physiology, pathology, and its potential for therapeutics.  Currently, we know that each cannabis strain has different combinations and ratios of terpenes and cannabinoids.  These combinations and ratios of terpenes and cannabinoids can create a cascade of beneficial desired effects on how one feels.

In botanical medicine, specific herbs with distinct combinations of terpenes are known to correlate with certain healing benefits.  Data and information from thousands of studies on individually isolated terpenes and essential oils with terpene constituents have been cataloged since 1923.  While more scientific research is needed, the information and studies thus far have demonstrated many promising benefits.

Clinical studies are needed to complement the early research that has been conducted on how the interaction between cannabinoids and terpenes promote health by helping to remedy deficiencies of endocannabinoids (cannabinoids produced by our bodies).  An area of particular interest is how terpenes can play a role in pain management.  Early research has indicated a potential for anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving responses from terpenes.  Clearly, there is a need for more in-depth clinical studies on how terpenes influence phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids produced by plants or vegetation) that bind to various receptors in the endocannabinoid system affecting the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, the gut, and the immune system.  In addition to pain relief and anti-inflammatory responses, early research has demonstrated how specific terpenes and their interaction with cannabinoids show promise with antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties among other health benefits.

What should a consumer look for when buying a hemp cannabis product that contains terpenes?  Knowing what is in your product is key to having a successful hemp cannabis product experience.  Things to look out for are whether companies are transparent about providing independent laboratory results regarding cannabinoid and terpene levels in the product.  Does the company provide information on the testing of their product for contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, microbes, or other toxins?  A responsible hemp cannabis company should furnish such information by either having a QR code that can be scanned on their box, or by posting test results on their website.

Terpenes are very volatile chemicals and depending on whether their extraction uses techniques involving heat and pressure, they may not survive the production process in their stable form. While some companies have begun adding terpenes to their products, most only use a few terpenes, and at volumes that are generally too low to provide a full beneficial experience.  More advanced companies have learned to create specific and repeatable profiles in their products.  Such products are more likely to give consumers the same desired effect with each product purchase.  Make sure the terpenes in your product are derived from natural sources, as synthetic terpenes have been shown to lack efficacy.  If you are looking to enhance your experience with hemp derived CBD products by using products enhanced with natural terpenes, following the above easy guidelines will result in a higher likelihood of achieving beneficial effects without unpleasant surprises.

Terpenes: Interactions and Effects With Cannabis

by May 13, 2021

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181184/

When we think of cannabis, THC is one of the first words to pop into our heads. You might also know about CBD, or you may have read about some of the other major cannabinoids like CBC, CBG, and CBN. However, you may not have heard about other molecules in cannabis that give it a specific aroma and flavor. These important compounds are called terpenes. Terpenes are incredibly diverse, yet less of an understood and appreciated part of the cannabis plant, and in all plants in nature.

 

The idea that the therapeutic properties of major and minor cannabinoids like THCV and CBDV are enhanced by their interaction with each other ties into what Raphael Mechoulam famously dubbed “the entourage effect”.  Ethan Russo’s research leverages this theory by further contemplating how these major and minor cannabinoids interact with terpenes. If the terms Limonene, Myrcene, Pinene, Terpinol, and Linalool don’t mean much to you yet, don’t worry, you come across these compounds every day when you eat a piece of fruit, smell a flower, or walk through a pine forest.

 

This April 2020 study researched the impacts of cannabis, terpenes, their interaction and medicinal properties. The study was led by Elaine Goncalves out of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, who has published several studies on the subject. To find out the latest research into terpenes, cannabis, their relationship, and more, click here.

 

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